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^i«iniiiiii4- 1/ DgfcH C. WOECESTEB

ADTROX ov " THa rBiLirrDn iii.urM











L TiKW Ponrr aitd SnajKcr^MATTKB . . 1

IL Wab IiTDmKDKNCE Phomibbd ? 18


IT. The FaEMKDiTXTED Ikbtibqkkt Attack . 127

T. IifBintaxifT Rdls ahd thb Wilcox-Sakgbnt Bipobt ISS

TL IirainiQBMT Bulk ik tse Cagatak Valley 170

TEL IirenBOBin' Bitle in tbe Visatab and Blbbwhzri 206

TUL Did We Debtbot a Repcbuc? 242 '

IX. The Conduct of the Wae 270

X. Mb. Bbtak akd ImBiutDBitoE 206 '

XL The First Phu.ippikb Commisbiok .... 801

XXL The EsTABi.iBHHBin' or Ctvu. Govebxmeitt , . 826

XQL Tbb Phiupfine Cini. Service 860

XIT. The Cokbtajbclart and Pitbijo Order . . . 878

XV. The Adhikistbation Justice 400

XVL Health Conditiohb .408

XVIL Saouio and the Benouet Road 440

XTin. Thx CoSsDiKATioa of SciEHTiric Wore ... 488







I. Turw PoiHT AKD Subjxot-Uattbs .... 1

IL Was Imdrpbhdinci Psomibzd? 18


IV. Thi Pbbkxditatxd iHsrBOEKT Attack . 127

y. iKSDRQEifT RuiA ASS THB Wilcoz-Saboent Rxfokt 152

TL Iksdroxiit Buu n thx Caqatan Vaij.i:y . 170

TO. IxsnBOKHT Scut IK the Tisatab akd Eubwhksk . 206

Vm. Did Wk Dmteot a Bkpdblic? 242 "

IX. Thb Cohdcct of TBI Wab 270


XL Thb Fijut Philippine CoKHUBioir . . . .801

XTT- Thx EsTABLieaMENT or Cmi, Oovbbkhbnt . > S26

XnL Thb Phiuppinb Citu. Sxkvicb 380

XIT. Thb CoirsTABtiiAxT and Pubuc Obdbb . . . 878

XV. Thx ADininBTBATioii or Jdbticb 400

XVL Hkaxth Comditioms 408


XVm. TBB CotiRDUTATIOIl Or SojBKTtriO WoBK ... 488



One of the Fiist Bengcet Government Cottagea .... 240

Typloftl Cottages at Bagnio 248

A Baguio Home 260

The Baguio Hospital 284

Govemmeut Centre at Bagnio 272

A SoeDs in tbe Bagnio Teachers' Camp 280

The Bagnio Conntiy Club 288

The Bureau of Science Building, Manila 806

The Philippine General Hospital 814

The College of Medicine and Surgery, Manila 822

An Old-atyle Schoolhonw, with Teacherg and PnpUa . . . 880

A Modern Primaiy School Bailding SS8

Old-style Central School Building 84t

Modern Central School Bailding 840

Typical Scene in a Trade School 864

. An Embroidery Chua 882

Philippine Embroidery 870

Filipino Trained Nurses 880

A School Athletic Team 886

Filipina Girls playing Basket-bait 894

University Hall, Manila 402

Bakfdan 410

lu Hostile Country 418

Trarel under Difficulties 420

Dangerous Navigation 484

A Negrito Family and theii " Hoasa " 442

A Typical Negrito 448

Typical Kalingas 462

SeUling a Head-hunting Fend 468

Entertaining the Kalingas 444

An Ifugao Family 470

Ifugao Dancers *■■ 478

An Ifugao Dancer 484

Ifngao Bice Terraoea 492






CHAPTER I View Point and Subject-Mattbb

It ifi customary in Latin countriefl for a would-be author or orator to endeavour, at the b^tnnmg of his book or his speech, to establish his status. Possibly I have be- come partially Latinized as the result of some eighteen years of residence 1q the Philippines. At all events it is my purpose to state at the outset facts which will tend to make clear my view point and at the same time brieSy to outline the subject-matter which I hereinafter discuss.

As a boy I went through several of the successive stages of collector's fever from which the young commonly suffer. First it was postage stamps; then birds' nests, obtained during the winter season when no longer of use to their builders. Later I was allowed to collect eggs, and finally the birds themselves. At one time my great ambition was to become a taxidermist. My fandly did not actively oppose this demre but suggested that a few preliminary years in school and collie might prove useful.

I eventually lost my ambition to be a taxidermist but did not lose my interest in zoology uid botany. While a stud^it at the University of Michigan I specialized in these subjects. I was fortunate in having as one of my instructors Professor Joseph B. Steere, then at the head of the Department of Zoology. Professor Steere, who had been a great traveller, at tkaes entertained his classes




with wonderfully interesting tales of adventure on the Amazon and in ttie Andes, Peru, Formosa, the Philippines and the Dutch Moluccas. My ambition was fired by his stories and when in the spring of 1S86 he announced his intention of returning to the Phihppines the following year to take up and prosecute anew zoological work which he had begun there in 1874, offering to take with him a limited number of his students who were to have the benefit of his knowledge of Spanish and of his wide ex- perience as a traveller and collector, and were in turn to allow him to work up their collections after their retiim to the United States, I made up m^ mind to go.

I was then endeavouring to get through the University on an allowance of $375 per year and was in consequence not overburdened with surplus funds. I however managed to get my life insured for $1500 and to borrow $1200 on the pohcy, and with this rather limited sum upon which to draw purchased an outfit for a year's collecting and sailed with Doctor Steere for Manila. Two other young Americans accompanied him. One of these, Doctor Frank 8. Bourns, was like myself afterwards destined to play a part in Philippine affairs which was not then dreamed of by either of us.

We spent approximately a year in the islands. Unfor- tunately we had neglected to provide ourselves with proper official credentials and as a result we had somO't. embarrassing experiences. We were arrested by sus- picious Spanish officials shortly after our arrival and were tried on trumped-up chaises. On several subsequent .- occasions we narrowly escaped arrest and imprisonment.

The unfriendly attitude of certain of our Spanish ac- - quaintances was hardly to be wond^^d at. They could not believe that sensible, civilized hiunan beings woiUtf shoot tiny birds, pay for eggs the size of the tip of one's little finger more than hens' eggs were worth, undeigo not a few hardships and run many risks while living in the amplest of aaJ^ve houses on very inadequate food,



unless actuated by some hidden purpose. At differ^it times they suspected us of looking for gold deposits, of designing to stir up trouble among the natives, or of being political spies.

When Doctor Bourns came back with the American troops in IjQ^ and I returned as a member of the first Philippine Commission in 14^, this last supposition be- came a fixed belief with many of our former Spanish ac- quaintances who still remained in the islands, and they frankly expressed their regret that they had not shot us while they had the chance.

Over against certain unpleasant experiences with those who could not understand us or our work I must set much kind and invaluable assistance rendered by others niio could, and did.

AH in all we spent a most interesting year, visiting eighteen of the more important islauds.*

Throughout this trip we lived in very cloae contact with the Fihpinos, either occupying the fynbuncdes, the municipal buildings of their towns, ^ere they felt at liberty to call and observe us at all hours of the day and ni^t, or actually living in their bouses, which in some instances were not vacated by the owners during our occupancy.

Incidentally we saw something of several of the wild tribes, including the Tagbanuas of Palawan, the Moros of Jold, Basilan and Mindanao, and the Mangyans of MindoTO.

We experienced many very real hardships, ran not a few seriotis risks and ended our sojourn witii six weeks of fever and starvation in the interior of Mindoro. While we would not have cut short our appointed stay by a day, we were nevertheless delighted when we could turn our faces homeward, and Doctor Bourns and I agreed

* Cfiyo, I^U&waa, Balatwo, CagBTan de Joltf, J6\6 ptoper, BasUan, Mindanao, Panay, Ouimaras, Nesros, Siquijor, Ceba, Bohol, Samar, Ijeyte, Maabote, Marinduque and Mindoro. . .



that we had had quite enough of Ufe in the Philip- pines.

Upon my arrival at my home in Vennont a competent physician told my family that I might not live a week. I however recuperated so rapidly that I was able to re- turn to the Univeisity of Michigan that fall and to com- plete the work of my ficnior year. I became a member of the teaching staff of the institution before my graduation.

Little as I suspected it at the time, the tropics had fixed their strangely firm grip on me during that fateful first trip to the Par East which was destined to modify my whole subsequent life. I had firmly believed that fortunate enough to get home I should have sense enough to stay there, but before six months had elapsed I was finding life at Ann Arbor, Michigan, decidedly prosaic, and longing to return to the Philippines and finish a piece of zoological work which I knew was as yet only begun.

Doctor Bourns, like myself, was eager to go back, and we set out to raise $10,000 to pay the expenses of a two- years collecting tour, in the course of which we hoped to visit regions not hitherto penetrated by any zoologist.

Times were then getting hard, and good Doctor Angell, the president of the university, thought it a great joke that two yotmg fellows like ourselves shoiild attempt to raise so considerable a sum to be spent largely for our own benefit. Whenever he met me on the street he used to ask whether we had obtained that |10,000 yet, find then shake with laughter. One of the great satisfactions of my life came when, on a beautiful May morning in 1890, I was able to answer his inquiry in the affirmative.

He fairly staggered with amazement, but promptly re- covering himself warmly congratulated me, and with that kindly interest which he has always shown in the affairs of young men, asked how he cotdd help us. Through his kindly offices and the intervention of the State De- partment we were able to obtain a royal order from the



Spanish government which assured us a very difiFerent reception on our return to the Pfaihppines in August from that wliich had been accorded us on the occasion of our first visit to the islands.

There was now revealed to us a pleasing side of Spanish character which we had largely missed during our first visit. Satisfied as to our identity and as to the motives which actuated us, the Spanish officials, practically with- out exception, did everything in their power to asust us wid to render our sojoum pleasant and profitable. Our mail was deUvered to us at {Mints fifty miles distant from provincial capitals. When our remittances failed to reach us on time, as they not infrequently did, money was loaned to us freely without security. Troops were urged upon us for our protection when we desired to pene- trate regions considered to be dangerous. Our Spanish friends constantly offered us the hospitality of their homes and with many of them the offer was more than pro forma. Indeed, in several instances it was insisted upon so strongly that we accepted it, to our great pleasure and profit.

Officials were quite frank in discussing before us the aff'airs of their several provinces, and we gained a veiy clear insist into existing political methods and conditions.

During this trip we lived in even closer contact with the Filipino ' population than on the occasion of our first visit. Our rapidly growing knowledge of Spanish, and of Visayan, one of the more important native dialects, rendered it increasingly easy for us to communicate with them, gain their confidence and learn to look at things

' I employ the noun Filipinos to designate ooUeotively the ^K^t civilized. Christianized peoples, otdled respeotively the CaKaT^ns. Doeanoa, Pangaain&ns, Zambalone, Pampanganfi. Tagilofre, BiooLi and Viaayana, or any of them; the adjeotive Filipino to designate anything pwtaining to these peoplee, or any of them ; the noun Phil- ippines to designate the coimtry, and the adjeotive Philippine to dang- Date anything pertaining to the oountry as distin^niished from its petite.



from their view point. They talked with us most frankly and fully about their pohtical troubles.

During this our second sojourn in the Philippines, which lengthened to two years and ax months, we re- visited the islands with which we had become more or less familiar on our first trip and added six others to the list.' We lived for a time among the wild Bukidnons and Negritos of the Negros mountains.

After my companion had gone to Borneo I had the mis- fortune to contract typhoid fever when alone in Busuimga, and being ignorant of the nature of the malady from which I was suffering, kept on my feet imtil I could no longer stand, with the natural result that I came uncom- monly near paying for my foolishness with my. life, and have ever since suffered from resulting physical disabili- ties. When able to travel, I left the islands upon the urgent recommendation of my physician, feeling that the task which had led me to return tiiere was almost accom- plished and sure tiiat my wanderings in the Far East were over.

Shortly after my retiim to the United States I was offered a position as a member of l^e zodlogical staff of the University of Michi^n, accepted it, received speedy premotion, and hoped and expected to end my days as a college professor.

In 1898 the prospect of war with Spain awakened old memories. I fancy that the knowledge then possessed by the average American citizen relative to the Philip- pines was fairly well typified by that of a good old lady at my Vermont birthplace who had spanked me when I was a small boy, and who, after my first return from the Philippine Islands, said to me, "Deanie, are them Philip- pians you have been a visitin' the people that Paul wrote the Epistle to?"

I endeavoured to do my part toward dispelling this ignorance. My knowledge of Philippine affairs led me

* Busuaoga, Culion, Tawi T&vi, Tablas, Bomblon and SboTan.





S -5 s i

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5 istc

o 'Hi

I 'Mi

"= .3I-3 S * ? I- S






strongly to favour armed intervention in Cuba, where Bimilar political conditiona seemed to prevail to a con- siderable extent, and I fear that I was considered by many of my university colleagues something of a "jingo." tade«l, a member of the University Board of Regents said that I ought to be compelled to enlist. As a matter of fact, compulsion would have been quite unnecessary had it not been for physical disability.

My life-long friend and former travelling companion, Doctor Bourns, was not similarly hampered. He promptly joined the army as a medical officer with the rank of major, and sailed for the islands on the second steamer which, carried United States troops there. As a natural result of his familiarity with Spanish and bis wide acquaintanceahip among the Fihpinos, he was ordered from the outset to devote his time more largely to poUtical matters than to the practice of his profession. He did all that he could to prevent misunderstandings between Filipinos and Americans. He assisted as an interpreter at the negotiations for the surrender of Manila on August 13, 1898, after taking part in the attack on the city. Later he was given the rather difficult task of suppressing a bad outbreak of smallpox among the Spanish prisoners of war, which he performed with great success. He was finally made chief health officer of Manila, although he continued to devote himself largely to poUtical matters, got numberless deserving Filipinos out of trouble, and rapidly increased his already wide circle of Filipino friends. Through his letters I was kept quite closely in touch with the situation.

Meanwhile I decided that the Philippines were not for me, asked for and obtained leave for study in Europe, and in December 1898 set out for New York to engage passage for myself and my family. I went by way of Washington in order to communicate to President Mc- Kinley certain facts. relative to the Philippine situation which it seemed to me ought to be brought to his attention.



I believed that there was serious danger of an outbreak of hoBtilitiea between Filipinos and Americans, and that such a catastrophe, Faulting from mutual misunder- standing, might be avoided if seasonable action w«% taken. I have since learned how wrong was this latter behef. My previous experience had been almost exclu- sively with the Visayans and the wild tribes, and the revolution against the United States was at the outset a strictly Tag&log affair, and hence beyond my ken.

President McKinley very kindly gave me all the time I wanted, displayed a. most earnest desire to learn the truth, and showed the deepest and most friendly interest in the FiUpinos. Let no man believe that then or later he had the sli^test idea of bringing about the exploita^ tion of their country. On the contrary, he evinced a most earnest desire to leam what was best for them and then to do it if it lay within his power.

To my amazement, at the end of our interview he asked me whether I would be willing to go to the islands as bis personal representative.

I could not immediately decide to make such a radical change in my plans as this would involve, and asked for a week's time to think the matter over, which was granted. I decided to go.

Meanwhile, the President had evolved the idea of sending out a commission and asked me if I would serve on it. I told him that I would and left for my home to make preparations for an early departure. A few da^ later he annoxmoed the names of the commissioners. They were Jacob Gould Schurman, President of Cornell University; Major-General Elwell S. Otis, then the rank- ing army officer in the Philippines ; Rear-Admiral George Dewey, then in command of the United States fleet in Pbihppine waters ; Colonel Charles Denby, who had for fourteen years served as United States Minister to China, and myself.

Colonel Denby was delayed in Washington by public



buBmesa. Mr. ScfaurmflQ and I reached Yokohama on the morning of February 13, and on arrival there learned, to our deep r^;ret, that hoetilities had broken out on the fourth instant. We reached Manila on the evening of March 4, but Colonel Denby was unable to join us until April 2. Meanwhile, aa we could not begin our work in his absence, I had an exceptional opportunity to observe conditions in the field, of which I availed myself.

I served with the first Philippine Commission until it had completed its work, and was then appointed to the second Philippine Commission without a day's break in my period of service.

The members of this latter body were William H. Taft of Ohio ; Luke £. Wright of Tennessee ; Henry C. Ide of Vermont; Bernard Moses of California, and myself. Briefly stated, the task before us was to establish civil government in the PhiUppine Islands. After a period of ninety days, to be spent in observation, the commission was to become the legislative body, while executive power continued to be vested for a time in the military.

This condition endured until the 4th of July, 1901, on which day Mr. Taft was appointed civil governor. On September 1, 1901, each of the remaining ori(pnal members of the commission became an executive officer as well.. Mr. Wright was appointed secretary of commerce and police ; Mr. Ide, secretary of finance and justice ; Mr. Moses, secretary of pubUc instruction, and I myself, Secretary of the Interior. On the same day three Fili- pino members were added to the commission : Dr. T. H. Fardo de Tavera, Sr. Benito Legarda and St. Jos^ R. de Luzuriaga.

Until the 16th of October, 1907, the Commission con- tinued to serve as the sole le^lative body. It is at the present time the upper house of the Philippine Leg- islature, the Philippine Assembly, composed of ei^ty- one elective members, constituting the lower house.



I hare therefore had a hand in the enactment of all legislation put in force in the Philippine Islands since the American occupation, with the exception of certain laws passed during my few and brief absences.

As secretary of the interior it fell to my lot to organize and direct the operations of a Bureau of Health, a Bureau of Government Laboratories, a Bureau of Forestry, a Bureau of Public Lands, a Buicau of Agriculture, a Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes, a Mining Bureau and a Weather Bureau. Ultimately, the Bureau of Non- Christian Tribes and the Mining Bureau were incorporated with the Bureau of Government Laboratories to form the Bureau of Science, which continued under my executive control. The Bureau of Agriculture was traiisferred to the Department of Public Instruction in 1909.

I was at the outset given administrative control of all matters pertaining to the non-Christian tribes, which constitute, roughly speaking, an eighth of the population of the Philippines, and until my resignation retained such control throughout the islands, except in the Moro Province, which at an early day was put directly imder the governor-general.

I participated in the orgfmization of civil government in the several provinces of the archipelago, and myself dr^ted the Municipal Code for the government of the towns inhabited by Filipinos, as well as the Special Pro- vincial Government Act and the Township Government Act for that of the provinces and settlements inhabited chiefly by the non-Christian tribes.

At the outset we did not so much as know with cer- tainty the names of the several wild and savage tribes inhabiting the more remote and inaccessible portions of the archipelago. As I was unable to obtain reliable in- formation concerning them on which to base legislation for their control and uplifting, I proceeded to get such information for myself by visiting their territory, much of which was then quite unexplored.




Aftei this territory waa orgaoized into five so-called Special -Govenunent Provinces," some of my Filipino friends, I fear not moved solely by anxiety for the public good, favoured and secured a legidative enactment which made it my official duty to visit and inspect these pro- vinces at least once during each fiscal year. I shall always feel indebted to them for ^ving me this oppor- timi^ to become intimately acquainted with some of the most interesting, most progressive, and potentially most important peoples of the Philippines.

When in 1901 I received the news that a central gov- ernment was soon to be established, I was in the Sub- province of Lepanto on my first trip through the wilder and less-known portions of northern Luzon. During each succeeding year I have spent from two to four months in travel through the archipelago, familiarizing myself at first hand with local conditions.

I have frequently taken with me on these inspection tripe representatives of the Bureaus of Forestry, Agricul- ture, Science and Health to carry on practical investiga^ tions, and have made it my business to visit and explore little known and imknown regions. There are very few islands worthy of the name which it has not been my privilege to visit.

The organization of an effective campaign against diseases like bubonic plague, smallpox, Asiatic cholera and leprosy in a country where no similar work had ever previously been imdertaken, inhabited by people pro- foxmdly ignorant of the benefits to be derived from modem methods of suiitation, uid superstitious to a degree, promptly brought me iuto violent conflict with the beliefs and prejudices of a large portion of the Filipino population.

A aunilar result followed the inauguration of an active campaign for the suppression of surra, foot and mouth disease, and rinderpest, which were rapidly destroying the horses and cattle.



From the outset I was held responsible for the enforce- ment of marine and land quarantine regulations, which . were at first very obnoxious to the genertd public.

When the Pure Food and Drugs Act adopted by Con- gress for the United States was made applicable to the Philippines without any provision for its enforcement, this not altogether pleastmt duty was assigned to me.

I did not seek appointment to the Philippine service in the first instance. The political influence at my com- mand has never extended beyond my own vote. During a period of twelve years nly removal was loudly and fre- quently demanded, yet I saw President Schurman, Colonel Denby, General Otis, Admiral Dewey, Commissioner Moses, Governor Taft, Governor Wright, Governor Ide, Governor Smith, Secretary Shuster, CommiBsioner Tavera, Commissioner Legarda and Governor Forbes, all my col- leagues on one or the other of the Philippine commissions, leave the service, before my own voluntary retirement on September 15, 1913.

I had long expected a request for my resignation at any time, and had .often wWied that it mi^t come. Indeed I once before tendered it voluntarily, only to have President Taft say that he thought I should wi^draw it, which I did. I am absolutely without political ambition save an earnest desire to earn the political epitaph, "He did what he could."

During my brief and infrequent visits to the United States I have discovered there widespread and radical misapprehension as to conditions in the Philippines, but have failed to find that lack of interest in them which is conmionly said to exist. On the contrary, I have foimd the American public keenly desirous of getting at the real facts whenever there was an opportunity to do so.

The extraordinary extent to which untrue statements have been accepted at their face value has surprised and deeply disturbed me. I have conversed with three col- lege presidents, each of whom believed that the current




racpenses of the Philippine government were paid from the United States Treasury.

The preponderance of false and misleading statements about the Philippines is due, it aeems to me, primarily to the fact that it is those persons with whom the climate . disagrees and who in consequence are invalided home, > and those who are separated from the service in the in- terest of the public good, who return to the United States I and get an audience there ; while those who successfully ' adapt themselves to local conditions, display interest in ^ Uieir work and become proficient in it, remain in the idands for long periods during which they are too busy, * and too far from home, to make themselves heard. Incidentally it must be remembered that if such per- sons do attempt to set forth facte which years of practical experience have taught them, they are promptly accused of endeavouring to save their own bread and butter by seeking to perpetuate conditions which insure them fat jobs.

When I think of the splendid men who have uncom- plainingly laid down their hves in the military and in the civil service of their country in these islands, and of the lai^er mrniber who have given freely of their best years to unselfish, efficient work for others, this chai^ fills me with indignation.

The only thing that kept me in the Philippine service for so long a time was my interest in the work for the non-Christian tribes and my fear that while my successor was gaining knowledge concerning it which can be had only through experience, matters might temporarily go to the bad. It has been my ambition to bring this work to such a point that it would move on, for a time at least, by its own momentum.

I am now setting forth my views relative to the past and present situation in the islands because I believe that their inhabitants are confronted by a danger graver than any which they have before faced »nce t^e time



when their fate wavered in the balanoe, while the ques- tion whether the United States ^ould acquire sover- eijpity over them or should f'^'^w Spain to continue to rule them was imder conside. ' ' n.

It is my piupose to tell the plain, hard truth regard- less of the effect of such conduct upon my future carcOT. It has been alleged that my views on Philippine prob- lemswere coloiu^ by a desire to retain my official position. Nothing could be further from the truth. Indeed, no man who has not served for long and sometimes very weary years as a public official, and has not been a target for numerous more or less irresponsible individuals whose hands were filled with mud and who were actuated by a fixed desire to throw it at something, can appreciate as keenly as I do the manifold blessings which attend the life of a private citizen.

I trust that I have said enough to make clear my view point, and now a word as to subject-matter. It is my in- tention to correct some of the very mmaerous misstate- ments which have been made concerning past and present conditions in the Philippines. I shall quote, from time to time, such statements, both verbal and written, and more especially some of those which have recently ap- peared in a book entitled "The American Occupation of the Phihppines, 1898-1912," by James H. Blount, who signs himself "Officer of the United States Volimteers in the Phihppines, 1899-1901 ; United States District Judge in the Phihppmes, 1901-1905."

Judge Blount has indulged so freely in obvious hyper^ bole, and has made so very evident the bitter personal animosities which inspire many of his statements, that it has been a genuine siu^rise to his former associates and acquaintances that his book has been taken seriously.

It should be sufficiently evident to any unprejudiced reader that in writing it he has played the part of the special pleader rather than that of the historian. He has used government records freely, and as is usually the





caae when a apecial pleader quotes from such records, tlie nature of the matter which he has omitted is worthy of more than passing attention. I shall hope to he able to fill some of the gaps that he has left in the documentary history of the events which he discusses and by bo do- ing, very materially to change its purport.

As pubUc documents have been so misused, and as a new administration is bestowing on Filipinos political offices, and ^ving them opportunities, for which they are as yet utterly imprepared, tfius endangering the results of years of hard, patient, self-sacrificing work performed by experienced uid competent men, it becomes necessary to strike home by revealing impleasant facts which are of record but have not heretofore been disclosed because of tiie injury to reputations and the woimding of feelings which would result from their publication. In doing this I feel that I am only disohai^ng a duty to the people of the United States, who are entitled to know the truth if ike present possibility of Philippine independence is to be seriously considered, and to the several Hlipino peoples who are to-day in danger of rushii^ headlong to their own utter and final destruction.

At the outset I shall discuss the oft-asserted claim that the Filipino leaders were deceived and betrayed by Ameri- can officials whom they assisted, and that this unpar- donable conduct led to the outbreak of active hostihties which oodured just prior to the arrival at Manila of the first Philippine Commission.

I shall then show that these leaders never established a government which adequately protected life and property, OF gave to th«r people peace, happiness or justice, but on the contrary inaugurated a veritable reign of terror under which miu-der became a governmental institution, while rape, inhiimftn torture, burying alive and other ghastly crimes were of common occmrence, and usually went unpimished. The data which I use in establishii^ these contentions are for the most part taken directly



from the Insurgent records, in refenii^ to which I employ the war department abbreviation "P. I. R." followed by a mmiber.

I next take up some of t^e more important subsequent historical events, describing the work of the first Philip- pine Commission, and showing in what manner the government established by the second Philippine Com- mwsion has dischai^ed its stewardship, subsequently dis- cussing certain as yet unsolved problems which confront the present government, such as that presented by the existence of slavery and peonage, and that of the non- Christian tribes. For the benefit of those who, like Judge Bloimt, consider the Philippines "& vast straggly archi- pelago of jungle-covered islands in the south seas which have been a nuisance to every government that ever owned them," I give some facts as to the islands, their climate, their natiiral resources and their commercial possibilities, and close by setting forth my views as to the present ability of the civilized Cagayans, Ilocanos, PampaugauB, Zambals, Pangasinflns, Tagdlogs, Bicols and Visayans, commonly and correctly called Filipinos, to establish, or to maintain when established, a stable

I government throughout Filipino territory, to say nothing

I of bringing under just and effective control, and of pro- Itecting and civilizing, the people of some twenty-seven non-Christian tribes which constitute an eighth of the

(1 population, and occupy approximately half of the terri-

, tory, of the Philippine Islajids.

I wish here to acknowledge my very great indebtedness to Major J. R. M. Taylor, who has translated and com- piled the Insurgent * records, thereby making available a very lai^e mass of reliable and moat valuable information without which a number of chapters of this book woiild have remained unwritten. Surely no man who bases his

I I use the word " Inaui^eats " as a proper noun, to deei(piate the Filipiooa who took up arms agaiast ihe United States, h«aoe (ja.^t&lize it, and the adjective derived from it.



statements concemlng Filipino rule on the facts set forth in these records can be accused of deriving his inform&- tion from hostile or prejudiced sources. Of them, Major Taylor says :

"No one reading the Insui^eDt records c&n ful to be im- pressed with the difference between the Spanish and the TaglU log documents. Many of the former are doubtleea written with a view to their coming into the hands of the AmericsDB, or with deliberate purpoae to have them do so, and are framed accordingly. All TagfUog documents, intended only for flU- pinoe, say much that is not sud in the Spanish documents. The orders of the Dictator * to his subjecta were conveyed in the latter series of documents."

Oeneral Aguinaldo.



Was Indbpendbncb Promised?

It has long been the fashion in certain quartera to allege, or to insinuate, tiiat American consuls and naval officers promised the Insui^nt leaders that the inde- pendence of the Philippines would be recognized by the United States. It has been claimed by some that the cooperation of the Insurgents in the military operations against Manila was sought for and secured. Others say that they were at least de facto allies of the United States, and that they were in the end shamelessly betrayed and wantonly attacked.

These are very serious charges. I Bhall prove, chiefly by the'Insurgent records, that each of them is false. I ask the forbearance of my readers if, in the three chapters which I devote to these matters, I quote documentary evidence at length . When original docxmients or extracte from them tell a clear and reasonably concise story, I sometimes insert them bodily in the text. In other cases I give my own version of the facts which they set forth, but give the full text in foot-notes. In nearly all instances references are given to sources of documentary information. I greatly regret that Taylor's narrative, with its very numerous supporting documents, is not readily accessible to the student of history. It ought to have been published, but never got beyond the galley- proof stage. In referring to it, I am therefore obUged to use the word Taylor followed by the letters and figures designating the page of this g^ley proof on which the passage referred to is found. Whenever possible I ^ve



the War Department numbers* of Insurgent documents, but in a few cases can give only the exhibit numbers assigned by Taylor in printing the documents.

As his exhibits are serially arranged it is easy to find any one of them. Copies of his work may be found in the War Department and in the office of the Chief of the Kiilippine Constabulary.

Referring to the charge that the Insiirgents were deceived, even had deceit been practised as claimed, Aguinaldo would have had no just ground for com- plaint, for he himself not only frankly advocated its use, but deliberately employed it in his dealings with the Americans, as clearly appears in records hereinafter cited.* However, most Americans hold to a standard very dif- ferent from his. Was it departed from in this instance ? . Aguinaldo has specifically and repeatedly chained that I Pratt and Dewey promised him the recognition of the ^ independence of the Philippines by the United States.*

Judge Blount has referred to the "de facto alliance between the Americans and Aguinaldo," and has dwelt at length on "promises, both expressed and implied," which were subsequently repudiated by Consul Pratt, Admiral Dewey and Generals Anderson and Merritt, constantly suggesting, even when he does not specifically charge, bad faith on the part of these officers of the United States.* ,

On analyzing his statements we find that he is dis- creetly non-committal as to exactly what were the ex- pressed promises, nor does he make it so plain as might be deedred what legitimate inferences were deducible from the acts of the Americans in question. He quotes

Beeuming with the letten "P. I. B."

See pp. 53, 55, 68.

> See pp. 27, 47, 49, 63 of tluB book for repetitions and variations of this ehMife of A^naldo.

* See p. 31 of his book, "The American Oooup&tion of the Philip- pinee," in Tetening to which I will hereafter ijse the word Blount, fol- lowed by a page number.




their residence outside the islands. Their deportation was duly provided for, and Aguinaldo and twenty-aix of his companions were taken to Hongkong, on the Spanish steamer Uranus; arriving there on December 31, 1897. V On January 2, 1898, $400,000